Orillia

HOME INSPECTIONS

Roofing Information

By the Orillia Home Inspector

Certified Building Code Official

 

 

Types of Roofing

Types of Roofing is not to be confused with types of roofing materials.  Types of Roofing defines what types of roofing materials can be used and where.  There are basically two main types of roofing defined by the pitch or slope of the roof:  Steep-Sloped Roofing and Low Sloped or Flat Roofing.  Roofing materials are designed for one or the other.

Present day roofing materials can be made up of many elements .Anything from metal, to asphalt, to slate and others types, roofing material varies by cost, life and installation required. Getting to know the various kinds of roofs can be helpful when evaluating your home or searching for a new one.

Roof Construction

The construction; of a roof is determined by its method of support and how the underneath space is bridged and whether or not the roof is; pitched. The pitch; is the angle at which the roof rises from its lowest to highest point. Most North American domestic architecture, except in very dry regions, has roofs that are sloped, or; pitched. Although modern construction elements such as drainpipes may remove the need for pitch, roofs are pitched for reasons of tradition and aesthetics. So the pitch is partly dependent upon stylistic factors, and partially to do with practicalities.

There are two parts to a roof, its supporting structure and its outer skin, or uppermost weatherproof layer. In a minority of buildings, the outer layer is also a self-supporting structure.

The roof structure is generally supported upon walls, although some building styles, for example,geodesic and A frame, blur the distinction between wall and roof.

Roof Safety

Do not work on roofs without the proper rubber soled shoes and safety harness.  Do not even think about working on slopes with more than a 5:12 pitch unless you have experience and feel comfortable walking where your footing is less than sure.  At 5:12 and more, sliding or slipping on a roof becomes imminent and the danger of falling greatly increases.  It is better to leave the installation of roofing to the professional roofers who have the experience and the equipment to walk around on steeper sloped roofs.

 

 

Who We Are
What We Do
How We Do It
Sample Inspection Report
Our Inspection Contract
Testimonials

Contact Us

Home Owners Resources

WETT Information
Complete resource for wood burning technology and information for the home owner.

 

Certified by the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors - Click here to verify.

We are a Member of
OBOA | NACHI | FREA | NACBI

Inspection Definitions


1. Chimney - vent flue gases from fireplaces or heating equipment.
2.  Chimney flue top or chimney cap (if present)
3.  Chimney crown or chimney top seal
4.  Chimney Flashing seals the roof penetration to avoid leaks into the structure.
5. Masonry fireplace
6. Fireplace ash pit door. 
7.  Fireplace ash pit cleanout door.
8.  Fireplace mantel - horizontal trim attached to wall above fireplace opening.
9. Hearth - flat surface in front of the fireplace, protects flooring from fire.
10. Ridge cap or ridge vent (if present)
11. Ridge board
12. Cripple rafters or Jack rafters (between chimney and house eaves - rafters that do not extend the full distance between house eaves and the roof ridge board)
13. Rafter blocking or cross bridging, also found on floor joists and in some wall framing
14. Soffit or lookout or house eaves. The soffit is the enclosed portion of the roof that overhangs the house walls at the roof lower edges.
15. Roof sheathing or roof decking.
16. Roof shingles (asphalt shingles, clay tiles, slates, wood shingles, or shakes, similar materials)
17. Drip edge (used at lower roof edges or eaves). The drip edge is special metal flashing intended to divert water off of the roof lower edges into the roof gutter system. Drip edges should spill into the gutter, not behind it. 
18. Gutter (attached over or to fascia board) to collect roof drainage and prevent it from spilling down and along the building walls (leaks) and basement (wet basements
19. Downspouts (conduct roof drainage from the gutters to a destination away from the building or into a storm drain system).
20.  Downspout leader or downspout extension (hard to see, behind that front right entry porch column)
21. Gable end and gable-end attic vent. The gable end the house wall on a conventional simple gable roof such as shown in our sketch is the triangular end wall
22. Gable end fascia. The gable end fascia is the trim board attached to the roof edges, extending from ridge to lower roof edge, and where a rake overhang is present, covering the outermost rake rafter or barge rafter.
23. Gable end vent or attic vent at gable end
24. Wall corner studs or post; 
25. Wall Stud basic framing unit of wood frame construction building walls
26. Sill plate (rests atop foundation wall, nailed to rim joist and joists)
27. Wall top plate
28. Diagonal wall bracing (not present on all buildings, modern wood frame construction uses plywood or OSB sheathing to provide wall stiffness and protect against "racking" or diagonal movement in the wood framed structure)
29. Wall sheathing - showing diagonal tongue and groove boards, typically 3/4" thick; modern wall sheathing in wood frame construction uses 1/2" thick plywood or OSB sheathing products.
30. Floor joist resting on sill plate atop foundation wall. 
31. Interior partition wall over fireplace mantel; may be plaster over solid masonry or other construction;
32. Floor joist resting on basement beam or center girder.
33. Flooring underlayment (in 1955 this was red rosin paper or 15# roofing felt). Modern floor underlayment uses at least one thickness of tongue-and groove 3/4" plywood. Where carpeting is to be installed builders may use solid-core plywood to avoid accidental punctures of the flooring through the carpeting (stiletto heeled shoes).
34. Subflooring (shown, diagonal tongue and groove boards) - see #33 above. Additional layers of subflooring over the base underlayment may be installed where tile is to be installed;
35. Housewrap or moisture barrier (in 1955 this was red rosin paper or 15# roofing felt).
36. Exterior siding
37. Interior partition wall or center wall partition (may be load bearing, supporting 2nd floor joists)
38. Interior wall covering: Plaster wall scratch coat or masonry for chimney (if present)
39. Grade level (top of soil around building).
40. Foundation wall, along with wall footings (42) supports the structure and holds back earth where a basement or crawl space is included.
41. Sill sealer (between sill plate and foundation wall top)
42. Footing, supports the foundation wall.
43. Footing drain or foundation drain (perforated pipe + gravel, should extend to daylight to drain by gravity)
44. Poured concrete basement floor slab (floating slab atop compacted fill inside foundation wall)
45. Compacted fill (or gravel atop fill or poly on gravel on fill) below basement floor slab
46. Main girder resting on supporting posts or pockets in foundation walls (not shown but you can see a post to the right of (30). The main girder carries part of the floor joist load, typically through the center of the home. 
47.  Backfill around foundation wall.
48. Rim joist or pier cap (rests on pier top where a continuous foundation wall is not present)
49. Pier, alternative to a continuous foundation wall, piers may support posts that in turn support perimeter girders or beams carrying the building wall loads.
50. Window sash.
51.  Window jamb or window frame
52.  Window sash frame
53.  Window header
54.  Window interior trim
55.  Entry porch gable
56.  Fireplace ash pit
57. Stair tread.
58.  Stair riser
59. Stair stringer (structural support for stair treads and risers)
60. Newell post at stair bottom (handrail ends at this post)
61. Stair rail or handrail;
 on landings or balconies: guardrail.
62. Stair baluster. Balusters are the vertical supports enclosing the space between the underside of the stair railing and the stair tread upper surface. Typically spaced 4" o.c. to avoid child hazards.