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Plumbing System Vents

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In residential homes, plumbing vents or drain-waste-vents are part of the system that removes sewage and greywater from a building and regulates air pressure in the waste-system pipes, facilitating flow. Waste is produced at fixtures such as toilets, sinks and showers, and exits the fixtures through a trap, a dipped section of pipe that always contains water. All fixtures must contain traps to prevent sewer gases from leaking into the house. Through traps, all fixtures are connected to waste lines, which in turn take the waste to a soil stack, or soil vent pipe. At the building drain system's lowest point, the drain-waste vent is attached, and rises (usually inside a wall) to and out of the roof. Waste is removed from the building through the building drain and taken to a sewage line, which leads to a septic system or a public sewer.

Your homes drain and solid waste disposal system consists of 3 areas - the drain system, the waste system and the vent system. Drain pipes carry waste water from the sink and shower drains. The waste pipes carry solid and liquid waste from the toilet which is separate from your sink and shower drain. This prevents toilet waste creating a back up into the sink and bathtub if there was a blockage. Plumbing vents are pipes that run from every drain to the outside of the building, usually through the roof. They have two purposes. The first is to divert sewer gasses out of the building to the outside air. This prevents a dangerous build up of gas and bacteria. Without those vents, bacteria and gasses from the septic system would be released into the house where they could make people very ill.

Vent Defect Pictures

This is a picture of a plumbing vent in a Orillia Home that terminated inside the house. The purpose of a plumbing vent is to remove sewer gases from the drainage system and equalize its atmospheric pressure. Without the vents, our toilets and all other home plumbing fixtures might not be draining properly, can cause unusual noises (like gurgling or belching as and after they discharge), and could be responsible for an unpleasant sewer gas smell inside the house. This particular vent will definately being allowing sewer gas into the house.

Short Stack Vent on Roof

The Ontario Building Code requires a minimum height of six inches for a roof plumbing stack. This is the minimum height which can be increased by local building codes dependent on snow levels typical for that area. If your plumbing vent becomes blocked by ice and snow the proper venting of your entire homes plumbing system will be affected.

You require a building permit before installing drains and vents in your plumbing system, you must know the code requirements for your piping. You must also ascertain the different types of fittings you will need, depending on the different angles and turns your piping will undergo as you route the plumbing system. The key here is to design your plumbing to ensure compliance with the code requirements and the design of your home. Without proper venting, your drain pipes will not drain properly. Venting equalizes pressure throughout the drain pipes, preventing air bubbles from slowing drainage. Without proper venting, water may travel back up the pipe and out the drain. Proper installation in the beginning will prevent problems in the future.

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Definitions


Air Chambers
Pressure absorbing devices that eliminate water hammer. They should be installed as close as possible to the valves or faucet and at the end of long runs of pipe.

Air Gap (Drainage System)
The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of a water pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which it is discharging.

Air Gap (Water Distribution System)
The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle.

Air Lock
An air lock is a bubble of air which restricts the flow of water in a pipe.

Backflow
The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable water supply from any source or sources other than the intended source. Back siphonage is one type of backflow.

Back Siphonage  
The flowing back of used, contaminated, or polluted water from a plumbing fixture or vessel into a potable water supply due to a negative pressure in the pipe.

Branch
Any part of the piping system other than the main, riser, or stack.

Branch Vent 
A vent connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack.

Building Drain
The part of the lowest piping of a drainage system that receives the discharge from soil, waste, or other drainage pipes inside the walls of the building (house) and conveys it to the building sewer beginning 3 feet outside the building wall. 
 
Cross Connection
Any physical connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water and the other either water of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas, or chemical whereby there may be a flow from one system to the other, the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems. (See Backflow and Back siphonage.)

Disposal Field
An area containing a series of one or more trenches lined with coarse aggregate and conveying the effluent from the septic tank through vitrified clay Pine or perforated, non-metallic pipe, laid in such a manner that the flow will be distributed with reasonable uniformity into natural soil. 
 
Drain
Any pipe that carries waste water or water-borne waste in a building (house) drainage system. 
 
Flood Level Rim
The top edge of a receptacle from which water overflows. 
 
Flushometer Valve 
A device that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes and is closed by direct water pressures. 
 
Flush Valve
A device located at the bottom of the tank for flushing water closets and similar fixtures.  
 
Grease Trap
See Interceptor.  
 
Hot Water
Potable water that is heated to at least 120°F and used for cooking, cleaning, washing dishes, and bathing. 
 
Insanitary
Contrary to sanitary principles injurious to health.
 
Interceptor
A device designed and installed so as to separate and retain deleterious, hazardous, or undesirable matter from normal wastes and permit normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge into the drainage system by gravity. 
 
Leader
An exterior drainage pipe for conveying storm water from roof or gutter drains to the building storm drain, combined building sewer, or other means of disposal. 
 
Main Vent
The principal artery of the venting system, to which vent branches may be connected. 
 
Main Sewer
See Public Sewer. 
 
Pneumatic
The word pertains to devices making use of compressed air as in pressure tanks boosted by pumps.  
 
Potable Water
Water having no impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming in its bacteriological and chemical quality to the requirements of the Public Health Service drinking water standards or meeting the regulations of the public health authority having jurisdiction.  
 
P & T (Pressure and Temperature) Relief Valve 
A safety valve installed on a hot water storage tank to limit temperature and pressure of the water.  
 
P Trap
A trap with a vertical inlet and a horizontal outlet.  
 
Public Sewer
A common sewer directly controlled by public authority.  
 
Relief Vent
An auxiliary vent that permits additional circulation of air in or between drainage and vent systems. 
 
Septic Tank
A watertight receptacle that receives the discharge of a building's sanitary drain system or part thereof and is designed and constructed so as to separate solid from the liquid, digest organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of open-joint or perforated piping, or through a seepage pit.  
 
Sewerage System
A sewerage system comprises all piping, appurtenances, and treatment facilities used for the collection and disposal of sewage, except plumbing inside and in connection with buildings served and the building drain.
 
Soil Pipe
The pipe that directs the sewage of a house to the receiving sewer, building drain, or building sewer. 
 
Soil Stack
The vertical piping that terminates in a roof vent and carries off the vapors of a plumbing system. 
 
Stack Vent
An extension of a solid or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. Sometimes called a waste vent or a soil vent.  
 
Storm Sewer 
A sewer used for conveying rain water, surface water, condensate. cooling water, or similar liquid waste.  
 
Trap
A trap is a fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it.  
 
Vacuum Breaker
A device to prevent backflow (back siphonage) by means of an opening through which air may be drawn to relieve negative pressure (vacuum).  
 
Vent Stack
The vertical vent pipe installed to provide air circulation to and from the drainage system and that extends through one or more stories.  
 
Water Hammer
The loud thump of water in a pipe when a valve or faucet is suddenly closed.  
 
Water Service Pipe
The pipe from the water main or other sources of potable water supply to the water-distributing system of the building served. 
 
Water Supply System
The water supply system consists of the water service pipe, the water-distributing pipes, the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves, and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the building or premises. 
 
Wet Vent
A vent that receives the discharge of waste other than from water closets.  
 
Yoke Vent
A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack to a vent stack for the purpose of preventing pressure changes in the stacks.